Showing posts with label Pricing. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Pricing. Show all posts

Sunday, July 30, 2017

All About Stair Lift Pricing

All About Stair Lift Pricing

Stair lift is perhaps one of the greatest inventions of modern technology. These stair-lifts have given back the freedom of movement to people who could not move about freely either due to some injury or old age. These sorts of stairs can be installed in almost any kind of stair cases and provides the facility to move about stairs without making an effort.


These sorts of stairs generally work like monorails and are installed either inside or outside the railing of the stair case depending on the conditions. Pricing of these sorts of stairs mainly depends on their construction, type, and conditions in which they have to be installed. There is a wide variety of stair lifts available in the market, and each provides some advantages over the others.


The main reason for so many types of stair lifts in the market is that different houses have different types of stair cases with different construction design and space allowed in which the lift has to be installed. Similarly, different consumers need different types of aids to move about the stairs, and thus different stair lifts had to be designed to satisfy the needs of wide variety of customers.


Some of the common types of stair lifts include straight rail stair lift, curved rail stair lift, wheelchair platform stair lift, outdoor stair lift, and standing platform stair lift. Thus, the price of these types of stairs also differs due to various features. For example, some outdoor stair lifts are very expensive because they are made up of a non-corrosive material and are also properly shielded to defend against changing weather conditions.


Similarly, some indoor stair lifts don't include much gadgetry and need not have powerful electric motors to support a huge weight, and are thus less expensive compared to other types of stairs which need a powerful motor to support a huge weight. Thus, the price generally depends on the type of stair lift.


Some people are only temporarily disabled, and thus don't need permanent types of stairs in their house. For such people, there are different rental types of stairs also available in the markets. These types of stairs can be rented and installed for a temporary period, and after the required period is over the stair lift is returned to the company. This is a feasible solution for people who do not need the stair lift for a long period of time.


Another option available to customers is to buy used stair lifts. With the right amount of effort you can easily find the right stair lift in a very reasonable price in the used products market. However, one downside to purchasing used types of stairs is that there is no customer support along with it, and the buyer is totally independent in deciding which stair lift to buy.


This can become problematic as the buyer might not be able to fully understand which type of stair lift would fit in his situation, and thus might end up buying something useless. However, some engineers can also be hired or the company can also be requested to make suggestions as to which stair lift should be installed, and then a similar used stair lift can be purchased.



You can find more info about a stair lift at Churchills Stairlifts

Saturday, July 29, 2017

Self Branding - Pricing Your Services & Establishing Your Value

Self Branding - Pricing Your Services & Establishing Your Value

Making the transition from employee to coach, consultant or self-employed professional is filled with all kinds of emotions especially when it comes to the money.


Some professionals say, "I wish I didn't have to deal with the money part."  I remember feeling that way. Back then, I'd much rather work on the project, coach the client, build my business and NOT deal with the money part.


If you think about that, I was really good at giving but not good at receiving.  That was a big mis-match.  I was willing to work really hard for the client and skimp on my pay. 


At the time, it wasn't so obvious.  There was this subconscious thing going on.... it was underneath the surface and as you can imagine -- it really hurt my business. 


A few quick tips to get this right:


1.  Know your core skills, experience and services.


2.  Know your target market.  Be sure to choose a market that can afford to pay you.  Marketing intelligence is extremely important.


3.  Package your skills in a way that shows your value. 


4.  Set fees that feel good for you.  It's one thing to know the market but it's another thing to know your value.  You determine your value (not the market).  Once you determine your value--you then position yourself for the niche/target-market that can afford you.


5.  Don't worry about being too expensive.  According to research, 10% of the people will think any fee is too high no matter what your fees are. 


6.  Have fun and stretch yourself.  (Up your comfort zone)


A quick testimonial:  This year, I raised my coaching fees from $ 350 to $ 700-$ 1000.  At first, I was nervous but I decided that I would stretch myself (not participate in the recession) and attract clients who are willing to embrace their brilliance and stretch too.  The very next day, I signed on two clients at my new fees and they kept coming after that.  Are you willing to stretch?



Stay in The Loop and Get The Scoop:

Pricing New Products Correctly

Pricing New Products Correctly

As difficult as it is to comprehend, a recession is a time when smart companies get creative and launch some of their most innovative products and services. Some will even revaluate their brand and execute something new, something fresh. There are a lot of things that go into a new product launch, most of which I will cover in a later blog, but one of the most important is pricing.


I feel that I can safely assume that before any launch or market introduction, a large sum of time and money goes into research and development, marketing and "beta" testing. All of these should be used as a helpful medium for discovering what your customers are willing (or not willing) to pay for - whatever it may be that you're getting ready to offer or produce. Time and time again I have witnessed unsuccessful new product kick-offs due to poor market research or a very, very terrible pricing structure. I can understand though, there are a lot of things that are of concern during this process. What if you price it too low, everyone loves it and you're stuck with the price? What if you price it too high and there isn't enough interest for it to move? What if the price is right in-between the both and as a result, the product performs badly? Don't fret! There are answers to all of these questions but you have to ask some more before you get there.


First, why did you create this new product? If it was to benefit your customers and improve their experience, price it low enough that they can adopt it without feeling robbed. You see, when Apple first launched the iPhone, it decided just a few weeks later that the best price point was $ 200 less. This was one of the very few things I will condemn Apple for but they made it right after quickly offering customers who paid the higher price a $ 100 Apple gift certificate. The key to success with a product launch of this nature is to price it for your customers benefit, not your own.


Second, are you hoping this product is going to save your company? If your company has reached this point, I don't feel that a new product is all that is needed to keep your business afloat but it sure could help. In this scenario, I suggest you carefully consider your options. If you price it low enough, can you make it up in volume? If so, it is much better than the alternative - no sales and bankruptcy court? There are other things that should be going on behind the scenes to help make a move like this successful such as scaled back expenses and using free mediums such as Twitter, Facebook and MySpace to actively promote the launch.


Third, is it something totally new that your test groups proved to be something everyone would have to have? If these were the results, you are on the right track! The good news is that everyone will have to have it! But, be sure that you price it so that everyone can afford it. Depending on what the product or service is, it is very important to consider each demographic it will be offered to carefully. Is it something that would fall into the "disposable income" category? If it is, remember that each income demographic has its own sweet price point. That means, if you price the product outside of it, they won't buy - regardless of how much money they have on hand or how badly your study groups say they will want it.


And finally, is it something that you can offer for free? Depending on the product or service, it is important to consider offering it... for free! This doesn't apply to everything but think about this - if Twitter charged for membership or per every Tweet (oh GOODNESS), the chances of its success would have been very minimal and it would have likely failed. Apple doesn't charge for its iPhone software updates (except for iPod subscribers) because they understand customers have a continuing cost for owning one and they value the importance the phone has on its business model. Apple saw the bigger picture, do you?


When pricing new products or services - consider the results from your R&D, what the competition is doing and for how much, and who your customers will be. If you can find the right mix and do it for the right reasons, the chances of success are greatly improved. Just remember to avoid panic product launches, plan ahead, and do your research.



Joshua Hays is an aggressive marketing consultant with a strong background in design and nearly ten years of broad experience involving both B2B and B2C marketing techniques including print and online campaigns. He has advanced knowledge of both the Microsoft and Adobe software suites and is cross-platform, multi-operating system (MAC & PC) trained. Joshua specializes in product and campaign development and is a self-proclaimed marketing extraordinaire. Joshua Hays can be reached at http://www.joshuahays.com

PSD to HTML Pricing

PSD to HTML Pricing

PSD to HTML conversion is required to be done while developing a website. Just like any other factor, cost also affects the whole project. The question which arises is- how much should one pay for PSD to HTML conversion? The economic condition prevailing since the last few years has made everyone operate under a limited budget. All designers and developers try to outsource PSD to HTML to a company which is cost effective and has a good turnaround time.


There are a number of companies providing PSD to HTML conversion. And these services sell like anything. Getting PSD to XHTML is a basic requirement and hence can’t be overlooked. It needs to be get done in time. There are many aspects which determine the cost of PSD to HTML. Some of these aspects are- the complexity of design, turnaround time, number of features like browser compatibility, OS compatibility, W3C standard compliance, markup language and many more.


You need to make sure that you get a quality code. This will help your website to function properly without any glitches. Select a complete package which offers W3C validated code, acceptable turnaround time, manual coding, compatible with major browsers including Internet Explorer, Firefox, and Safari, and major OS including Windows, Mac and Linux.


Always hire a professional PSD to CSS/HTML company. This will guarantee best results within a stipulated time period. It will also have many benefits for your website. A professional company is more focused on validation, accessibility and standards. Its dedicated team will deliver the project on time. They also offer a wide range of options. It also saves the time as the company checks and makes changes to the code to make it compatible with all given browsers and OS combinations.


A professional web design company has the required expertise and skilled programmers who can do this job efficiently. They also have better process and tools to accomplish the task. It is important to have the knowledge of the structure of pricing of PSD to HTML. It should fit in your budget. Neglecting it can make your budget limit go awry. Normally the price of PSD to HTML conversion depends on the number of pages. However, it varies from company to company. Therefore, you should select the right company which has the right prices. Ensure that their turnaround time is good. Any delay can prove to be damaging for your business.


Xhtml.pixelcrayons.com converts your design files from various common image formats into best quality cross-browser compatible W3C validated XHTML/CSS markup. Check xhtml.pixelcrayons.com for our PSD to HTML and PSD to CSS services.






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Friday, July 28, 2017

Upvc Sash Window Pricing

Upvc Sash Window Pricing
When considering new upvc sash windows upvc sash windows for your house at some point upvc windows prices becomes part of the conversation. In order to get a reasonable idea what you can expect to spend on new windows you have to do your home work. What ever cost you come up with in the end you ll have to multiply it by the number of windows you have to replace. Which may become a huge factor if you have a home with a large number of windows, as a mater of fact it may be the most important element of your equation except if cost is not the primary consideration. For the moment lets focus on the factors that determine the end cost of a upvc window
.
To begin with the quality of the upvc material varies quite a bit some windows are extruded with recycled vinyl and others or constructed from brand new vinyl pellets. mark that down as your first question Obviously upvc windows made with virgin vinyl pellet chips are really more beneficial they are not as brittle as recycled upvc windows.

The color of the upvc window you select is a factor white is the most widely used and is the least expensive, many manufactures offer a number of choices if that's important however white is the least expensive.

The thickness of the upvc window extrusion is significant to the total strength and quality of your window and has big effect on upvc window prices upvc window prices, find out what gauge the upvc is so that you can contrast apples to apples the bigger the window the more important this really is. If the person your asking this question to doesn't know or tells you its not important, move on to the next alternative

The method a upvc window is put together is critical most upvc windows today are fusion welded together
not many years ago most have been held together by screws. That is old school if your looking at a upvc window that's screwed together keep searching. Whatever it is that you buy nowadays need to be fusion welded.

Once you have determined what level of thermal performance you want you may also add grids between the glass to replicate the old Double hung windows. Many window manufactures also offer options like leaded glass that can be used to brighten up the front of your residence. These are high end possibilities that will impact upvc window prices in a big way


D Mann has been in the home improvement industry for 30 years
please visit Upvc window pricing for more information

Or Upvc sash windows




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Full Cost Plus Pricing

Full Cost Plus Pricing

In practice cost is the most important influence on price. Many firms base price on simple cost-plus rules (costs are estimated and then a profit margin is added in order to set the price) a study by Lancelot gave a number of reasons for the predominance of this method.


• Planning and use of scarce capital resources are easier.
• Assessment of divisional performance is easier
• It emulates the practice of successful large companies.
• Organizations fear government action against 'excessive' profits.
• There is a tradition of production rather than of marketing in many organizations.
• There is sometimes tacit collusion in industry to avoid competition.
• Adequate profits for shareholders are already made, giving no incentive to maximize profits.
• Cost-based pricing strategies based on internal data are easier to administer.
• Over time, cost-based pricing produces stability of pricing, production and employment.


Full cost -plus pricing is a method of determining the sales price by calculating the full cost of the product and adding a percentage mark- up for profit. The full cost' may be a fully absorbed production cost only, or it may include some absorbed administration, selling and distribution overhead.


A business might have an idea of the percentage profit margin it would like to earn. And so might decide on an average profit mark-up as a general guideline for pricing decisions


This would be particularly useful for businesses that carry out a large amount of contract work or jobbing work, for which individual job or contract prices must be quoted regularly to prospective customers. However, the percentage profit mark-up dose not have to be rigid and fixed, but can be varied to suit the circumstances. In particular, the percentage mark-up can be varied to suit demand conditions in the market.


Problems with and advantages of full cost-plus pricing.


There are several serious problems with relying on a full cost approach to pricing.


• It fails to recognize that since demand may be determining price, there will be a profit-maximizing combination of price and demand.
• There may be a need to adjust prices to market and demand conditions
• Budgeted output volume needs to be established. Output volume is a key factor in the overhead absorption rate.
• A suitable basis for overhead absorption must be selected, especially where a business produces more than one product.



http://professional-edu.blogspot.com/2009/06/57-pricing-strategies-full-cost-plus.html

Demand Based Pricing

Demand Based Pricing

What is the best price a retailer can charge for his product?


One of the most difficult, yet important aspect, a retailer must decide as an entrepreneur is how much to charge a product. While there is no one single right way to determine pricing strategy, fortunately there are some guidelines that will help to take this crucial decision.


There are certain pricing guidelines such as competition-based pricing, cost-plus pricing, marginal-cost pricing, demand based pricing, supply based pricing, etc which sets thumb rule to decide price. These principles are specific to the characteristics of the product and the prevailing market condition.


Retailers face the complicated task of setting and changing prices for many items they carry. A typical grocery store in the United States now carries around 31,000 items in hundreds of product categories (Kahn and McAlister 1997). Each week, a retailer changes prices on over 4500 items (Levy et al. 1998). Besides the sheer number of price change possibilities, the considerations that enter the retailer pricing decisions have become very complex.


Sophisticated demand forecasts based on scanner data, a wide variety of manufacturer discounts, the push towards category management, and marketing intelligence on competing retailers' prices may all matter, and have been incorporated in recent analytical research (e.g., Basuroy et al. 2001, Kim and Staelin 1999, Wedel et al. 2004). Most recently, Nijs, Srinivasan, and Pauwels (2006) find that when retailers rely on past prices to set future prices (i.e., past-price dependence, price stickiness, or price inertia), lower category margins are observed, while demand-based pricing is associated with higher category margins.


Often we see many articles speaking about different pricing strategies related to advantages, reasons behind using specific strategies and so on. Out of all these, the arguable demand based pricing, suites retailers with the aim of increasing his profit.


Let us see some of the advantages of demand based pricing for a retailer:


1. In setting retail prices of brands in categories with higher purchase frequency.
2. In setting retail prices of brands in categories with larger number of SKUs.
3. In setting retail prices of brands in high-growth categories.
4. In setting retail prices of brands in storable categories.
5. In setting retail prices of brands with greater share of the retailer private label.
6. In setting retail prices of brands with greater product-line breadth.
7. In setting retail prices of high-share brands.
8. In setting retail prices of brands with higher demand sensitivity.
9. In setting retail prices of brands in expensive categories.
10. In setting retail prices for products with deep discounts from the manufacturer.


Companies who are well versed and have strong understanding on these principles classify the conditions under which retailers rely more on demand-based pricing. Our insights offer great opportunity for retailers to evaluate their pricing structure and help them to arrive at quick logical decisions.


References:
1. Basuroy S., Murali K Mantrala and Rockney G Walters. 2001. The Impact of Category
Management on Retailer Prices and Performance: Theory and Evidence. J. Marketing 65
(October), 16-32.Benkwitz, Alexander,
2. HelmutKahn, Barbara E., Leigh McAlister. 1997. Grocery Revolution: The New Focus on theConsumer, Addison-Wesley Pub. Co, Reading, MA.
3. Levy, Daniel, Mark Bergen, Shantanu Dutta, Robert Venable. 1998. Price Adjustment at
Multiproduct Retailers. Managerial and Decision Economics. 19 81-120.
4. Nijs, Vincent, Shuba Srinivasan, Koen Pauwels 2006. Retail-price drivers and retailer profits. Marketing Sci., forthcoming.



Jethendra.B.K.
Retail Consultant
CustoLogix Solutions
Email: jethendrak@custologix.com
URL: http://www.custologix.com
CustoLogix with its wide experience in providing insights helps retailer to improve retail profitability through Analytics. To know more about analytical insights please visit CustoLogix at http://www.custologix.com/services

The Optimum Pricing Model

The Optimum Pricing Model

Profit analysis.
• Microeconomic theory suggests that as output increases, the marginal cost (MC) per unit might rise (due to the low of diminishing returns) and whenever the firm is faced with a downward sloping demand curve, the marginal revenue (MR) per unit will decline.
• Eventually, a level of output will be reached where the extra cost of marking one extra unit of output is greater than the extra revenue obtained from its sale. It would then be unprofitable to make and sell that extra unit.
• Profits will continue to be maximized only up to the output level where (mc) has risen to be exactly equal to MR.
• Profit are maximized at the point where MC = MR, at a volume of Qn units.
• If we add a demand or average revenue curve to the graph we can see that an output level of qn, the sales price per unit would be pn.


Deriving demand curve
• When there is a linear relationship between demand and price, the equation for the demand curve is
P = a - BQ / Q


Where
p = the price
Q = the quantity demanded
A = the price at which demand would be nil
B = the amount by which the price changes for each stepped change in demand


Q = the stepped change in demand


A=(current price)+(current quantity at current price/charge in quantity when price in charged by$ )X$ B
The demand function above shows how price (P) varies with quentity (Q).Alternatively you can always rearrange the equation to show how the quantity sold varies with the price chargeed.


Optimum pricing in practice .


The approach of optimal pricing with its prediction of a single predictable equilibrium price is important in economics. However in practice organizations rarely use the technique. The problems in applying optimal pricing occur for the following reasons.
• It assumes that the demand curve and total costs can be identified with certainty. This is unlikely to be so.
• It ignores the market research costs associated with acquiring knowledge of demand.
• It assumes the firm has no productive constraint which could mean that the equilibrium point between supply and demand cannot be reached.
• It assumes that the organization wishes to maximize profits. In fact it may have other objectives.
• It assumes that price is the only influence on quantity demanded . we have seen that this is for from the case.



http://professional-edu.blogspot.com/2009/06/56-optimum-pricing-model.html

Thursday, July 27, 2017

Transfer Pricing

Transfer Pricing

By Lance Wallach


 


The IRS dedicates enormous resources toward dealing with taxpayer's who are involved with any form of transfer pricing. The transfer pricing provisions of IRC 482 address four general types of transactions between commonly owned or controlled parties.


1-   Use or transfer of tangible property


2-   Services


3-   Loans


4-   Use or transfer of intangible property  (especially cost sharing agreements)


 


Use of tangible property: When one member of a controlled group rents or leases property to another member of the group, the price paid for use of such property must equal an arm's length amount. Per Treas. Reg. 1.482-2(c )(2)(i), the arm's length amount is determined by reference to the amount that would have been charged between independent parties for use of the same or similar property under similar circumstances.


 


Determination of what is arm's length for fair rental value transactions:


a) Period of use


b) Location of use


c) Owner's investment in property or rent paid


d) Expenses of maintaining the property


e) Type of property


f)   Condition of property


 


Transfer of tangible property: When sales or transfers of tangible property are made between related parties (sales of goods), the arm's length price generally is the price that an unrelated party would pay for similar property under similar circumstances.


 


Determination of what is arm's length for inter-company sales: The regulations specify six methods used to determine whether an arm's length amount has been charged between members of a controlled group. Treas. Reg.1.482-3(a), states that the "best method" should be used to determine arm's length price. The IRS views the "best method" as the method that produces the most reliable results based on facts and circumstances. The IRS is well aware of the fact that many transfer pricing studies are prepared with the intention to validate year-end inter-company cost of sales regardless of whether they are arm's length just to avoid the IRC 6662 penalties. Taxpayer's would be best served if transfer pricing studies were prepared by knowledgeable experts in the field of transfer pricing.


 


Inter-company Services:When one member performs services for another member of a controlled group, an arm's length charge is required. This includes services such as marketing, management, technical services, or any other type of service. Such services can be provided by one party for the joint benefit of all members, or can be provided between two members of the controlled group.


 


Determination of what is arm's length for inter-company services: The arm's length standard for services between related parties is found in Treas. Reg. 1.482-2(b)(3) which states, " an arm's length charge for services rendered shall be the amount which was charged or would have been charged for the same or similar services in independent transactions with or between unrelated parties under similar circumstances considering all relevant facts." The arm's length charge for services between related parties will depend upon the facts related to the services provided. The pricing rules fall within three categories:


1) An arm's length charge will be based on the amount that would have been charged by an unrelated party. This generally means that the price should be based on reimbursement of cost, plus a mark-up for profit.


2) An arm's length charge may be based on only the costs incurred, provided that certain criteria are met.


3) No charge is necessary, if certain criteria are met.


 


The area that concerns the IRS most with these type transactions are technical services fees provided by larger U.S corporations to its foreign CFC's which are not charged. In regards to smaller cases, the IRS typically examines management fees in detail to ensure they are arm's length.


 


Inter-company Loans:In the context of IRC 482, most of the areas of conflict in this area revolve around interest. When loans are made between members of a controlled group, interest rates charged do not always meet the required arm's length standard.


 


Determination of what is arm's length for inter-company loans:The arm's length standard for loans between related parties is found in Treas. Reg. 1.482-2(a)(2) which states that " an arm's length rate of interest shall be a rate of interest which was charged, or would have been charged, at the time the indebtedness arose, in independent transactions with or between unrelated parties under similar circumstances."


 


Factors that are listed in Treas. Reg. 1.482-2(a)(2) that should be considered in determining arm's length interest are:


a) The principle amount and duration of the loan.


b) The security involved


c) The credit standing of the borrower


d) The prevailing interest rate where the loan was made


 


The regulations provide further guidance in the following areas:


a) Safe harbor rules


b) Ordering rules


c) Determination of bona fide indebtedness


d) Period for which interest is charged


 


Transfers of intangible properties: When transfers of intangible property are made between controlled parties, the arm's length price is often difficult to determine, in part because the property's value derives from intellectual capital such as ideas, the outcome of research and development or creation of software.


 


Determination of what is arm's length for transfer of intangible property:The regulations specify four methods to determine whether an arm's length amount has been charged between the members of a controlled group with respect to the transfer or use of intangible property. Treas.Reg.1.482-4(a) states that the "best method" should be used to determine the arm's length price between related parties. Controlled parties may enter into a qualified cost sharing arrangements to share costs related to developing intangibles. They may also contribute existing intangibles for use in further development or for use in developing new and distinct intangibles.


 


The following general rules of Treas.Reg.1.482-7(a) and (b) apply to qualified cost sharing arrangements:


a) Two or more controlled participants agree to share the costs of developing intangibles.


b) Costs are shared based on each participant's share of reasonably anticipated benefits from the intangibles to be developed.


c) A "buy-in" must be paid to the participant that contributes pre-existing intangible property to the qualified cost sharing arrangement.


 


As with transfer pricing reports, cost sharing agreements should be prepared by qualified experts who are knowledgeable in this area. If examined by the IRS, the cost sharing agreement will be reviewed in detail. For further insight refer to the Coordinated Issue Paper utilized as a guideline for the IRS personnel dated June 5th 2009.


 


Lance Wallach speaks and writes extensively about VEBAs, retirement plans, and tax reduction strategies. He speaks at more than 70 conventions annually writes for 50 publications, and was the National Society of Accountants Speakers of the Years. Contact him at 516.938.5007 or visit www.vebaplan.com.


The information provided herein is not intended as legal, accounting, financial or any other type pf advice for any specific individual or other entity. You should contact an appropriate professional for any such advice.



Lance Wallach, captive insurance and Section 79 plan expert, is the nation's leading authority on resolving IRS tax problems for individuals and businesses.

Mr. Wallach, National Society of Accountants' Speaker of the Year, is a member of the AICPA faculty of teaching professionals and he is a renowned national expert witness in many 419, 412i, and financial abuse cases. To date his side has never lost a case.

Mr. Wallach is often a featured speaker at national conventions for CPAs, attorneys, and business owners and other entrepreneurs, and has over 30 years experience helping people get the most possible money back from the IRS.  He can be contacted at 516-938-5007 or wallachinc@gmail.com, or visit www.taxadvisorexperts.org or www.taxaudit419.com for more information.

Lance Wallach is the author of many best selling accounting, taxation, and financial books, including:

 




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