Showing posts with label Line. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Line. Show all posts

Tuesday, December 5, 2017

On Line Dating Sites

On Line Dating Sites
Thanks to the Internet courting, you could get to meet the person/girl of your dreams without having to depart your house.

But earlier than you take the plunge into the Web courting, try to have a clear concept about your direction. What type of courting website must you go to? Completely different websites are catering to several varieties of people.

In case you are completely mild-hearted and wish just some fun and frolic, then be a part of a era free dating site. If you're a mature individual person looking for long term bond and dedication, then look and move forward in view of that.

What are the things it's important to do to extend your probabilities of discovering and assembly someone particular via the Web dating? Listed beneath are some tips for unattached people.

- Be half of a superb courting site. There are very good pay sites, but there are some wonderful free sites also. The most effective free sites have hundreds of thousands of members. Ignore the downsides like adverts all over; since its free theres no harm in accepting this.

- Create a Full profile. Put in every part attainable about yourself, what you like, what you dont like etc. Dont cease at writing you take pleasure in studying books and watching movies. Additionally mention that are your favorite books and films and the reasons. You could put in things that are a little private; you can venture a little bit bit of your delicate side (this appeals significantly to women). How you write your profile will be the determining factor.

- Put up a good picture of yourself! Use a clear image that exhibits you in an excellent gentle and shows you smiling. You will need to appear kind and approachable. This is important.

- It's essential to be patient. Patience is vital relating to the Web dating. Dont fear rejection, because it's sure to happen a few occasions, and occurs to everybody!

- This one is very important in the Web dating. Earlier than you start sending emails to the men or girls you would like to meet, be sure you learn their profile rigorously, and base your message in line with his/her profile. Dont ship the same mail to all the people. You message must suit the profile, for example, ship a sober sort of message if he/she appears conservative. If he/she appears to be the flirtatious kind, send a flirtatious message! Try to determine the sort of particular person from the profile.

- Attempt to make your message distinctive and engaging. Do a little bit of online research and find some attention-grabbing quotes that match his/her profile. Search for a superb quote from her favorite movie and put that in your message; this may work wonders in the Web courting!

- Ship out as many emails as you possibly can. Move on to a different dating site, and again ship a pile of messages at that site! The guideline here is that the larger the variety of emails you ship out, the better your chances of success!

These suggestions should greatly enhance your probabilities of the Internet courting triumph. Just keep in mind to be yourself, to be sincere and luxuriate in yourself.

If you want to taste on line courting but are unsure where to start why not pay a visit to: Online Dating

Wednesday, November 1, 2017

Let Add-on Codes Add to Your 92980 Bottom Line

Let Add-on Codes Add to Your 92980 Bottom Line

Prior to making your coding decision, identify the vessels involved.

CPT's parenthetical notes following 92980-+92981 offer rules for proper reporting that you cannot afford to miss. The notes reveal the following key points on what is and is not included.

Include these same-artery services

CPT's parenthetical notes following 92980-+92981 offer rules for proper reporting that you cannot afford to miss. The notes reveal the following key points on what is and is not included.

Include these same-artery services

CPT states that coronary angioplasty and/or atherectomy in the same artery as the stent placement is not separately reportable for the same encounter.

Separate vessel could mean separately reportable

If your cardiologist carries out stenting in one coronary vessel, and angioplasty or atherectomy procedures in a different coronary vessel, the angioplasty or atherectomy is not included in the stent code. As such, you may report those services separately.

Important: When coding interventions on more than one coronary vessel during the same session, the first code should be for the highest level procedure carried out on any vessel.

The hierarchy is stenting before atherectomy prior to balloon angioplasty.

Bonus tip: Remember that proper reporting for the above two-vessel instance calls for reporting the ‘single vessel' stent code 92980 with ‘additional vessel' code 92982 as the codes represent two different types of procedures. However CPT guides you to the right codes by stating under the stent codes. To report additional vessels treated by angioplasty or atherectomy only during the same session. That apart, CPT Assistant (December 1996) indicates that 92980 with +92984 is proper coding for stent placement in one vessel and angioplasty in another.

For more on this and the entire CPT code list, sign up for a one-stop medical coding website. Such a site comes with a CPT codes lookup tool to assist you in your coding and help you get the rightful reimbursements.

We provide you simple, instant connection to official code descriptors & guidelines and other tools for 2010 CPT code, HCPCS lookup that help coders and billers to excel in the work they do every day.

Related Add Url Articles

Friday, July 28, 2017

How Quality Score Impacts Your Bottom Line

How Quality Score Impacts Your Bottom Line

When you look at the paid search market these days, there is a significant difference between what happened in the past. The price that is given for PPC activities is no longer similar to the bid price. Google for instance has introduced Quality score that creates a lot of confusion for the advertiser. There are a multitude of additional factors that play a role in affecting the final cost per click.

Therefore, as a business user it is important to make sure that these factors are understood and worked accordingly so that there are improvements in your bottom line. When you subscribe for PPC activities make sure to understand quality score and its impact on paid search campaigns.

The factors that drive the quality scores and strategies used on optimizing quality score will drive your actual PPC campaign in a successful manner. The quality score does not allow you to understand what your actual price will be once you go for an Adwords campaign. Therefore, it is extremely important to make sure that you optimize your ads, keywords, and the landing pages so that there is optimal quality score available for your use.

The average quality score is simply an indicator. If you focus your ad campaign to be more granular then it is possible to increase CTR through lowering of CPC for the same position of the advertisement. This in turn helps play a positive role in increasing your ROI. Make sure to understand the balance between CTR and CR with respect to average sale. Your optimization activity has to focus on ROI.

Lower CPC will also allow you to get hold of more clicks and more impressions within the same budget. Therefore, it is important to take all these factors into consideration when you design your PPC campaign. First, have an idea regarding the kind of keywords available with you. Every niche or domain has a different set of keywords and within that a set of high ROI keywords. The inclusion of too many keywords in your campaign will work in a negative manner to lower your quality score.

If you are looking at a better quality score then make sure to offer fewer keywords that are essential for your PPC campaign. The most important thing to remember here is the fact that these keywords perform the best for your KPI so that it can be made more profitable. Therefore, try to include the more volume producing keywords in your campaign.

The impact of these keywords is what essentially drives your quality score as compared to 100 long tail keywords. The long tail one does not work in a favorable manner and does not produce much ROI in any case. There is a belief that quality score is dependant on CTR. However, that is just one of the factors and not the correct assumption. CTR tends to be the largest component present among all the factors for creation of quality score. Branded keywords tend to push the quality score through the provision of high CTR's.

Scott Bradley is a successful business man in a wide variety of internet services.
His organisation Echo Digital, provides affordable services to small to medium business
to assist them to grow their business. Affordable Web Design, Web Hosting and Internet Marketing

Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line

Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line

The distinguishing characteristic of ADSL over other forms of DSL is that the bandwidth is greater in the direction to the customer premises than the reverse, giving rise to is asymmetric characteristic. Providers usually market ADSL as a service for consumers to connect to the Internet in a relatively passive mode: able to use the higher speed direction for the download from the Internet but not needing to run servers that would require high speed in the other direction.

There are both technical and marketing reasons why ADSL is in many places the most common type offered to home users. On the technical side, there is likely to be more crosstalk from other circuits at the Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer (DSLAM) end (where the wires from many local loops are close to each other) than at the customer premises. Thus the upload signal is weakest at the noisiest part of the local loop, while the download signal is strongest at the noisiest part of the local loop. It therefore makes technical sense to have the DSLAM transmit at a higher bit rate than does the modem on the customer end. Since the typical home user in fact does prefer a higher download speed, the telephone companies chose to make a virtue out of necessity, hence ADSL. On the marketing side, limiting upload speeds limits the attractiveness of this service to business customers, often causing them to purchase higher cost Leased line services instead. In this fashion, it segments the digital communications market between business and home users.


Currently, most ADSL communication is full-duplex. Full-duplex ADSL communication is usually achieved on a wire pair by either frequency-division duplex (FDD), echo-cancelling duplex (ECD), or time-division duplexing (TDD). FDD uses two separate frequency bands, referred to as the upstream and downstream bands. The upstream band is used for communication from the end user to the telephone central office. The downstream band is used for communicating from the central office to the end user.

Frequency plan for ADSL. The red area is the frequency range used by normal voice telephony (PSTN), the green (upstream) and blue (downstream) areas are used for ADSL.

With standard ADSL (annex A), the band from 25.875 kHz to 138 kHz is used for upstream communication, while 138 kHz 1104 kHz is used for downstream communication. Each of these is further divided into smaller frequency channels of 4.3125 kHz. These frequency channels are sometimes termed bins. During initial training, the ADSL modem tests each of the bins to establish the signal-to-noise ratio at each bin's frequency. The distance from the telephone exchange and the characteristics of the cable mean that some frequencies may not propagate well, and noise on the copper wire, interference from AM radio stations and local interference and electrical noise at the customer end mean that relatively high levels of noise are present at some frequencies, so considering both effects the signal-to-noise ratio in some bins (at some frequencies) may be good or completely inadequate. A bad signal-to-noise ratio measured at certain frequencies will mean that those bins will not be used, resulting in a reduced maximum link capacity but with an otherwise functional ADSL connection.

The DSL modem will make a plan on how to exploit each of the bins sometimes termed "bits per bin" allocation. Those bins that have a good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) will be chosen to transmit signals chosen from a greater number of possible encoded values (this range of possibilities equating to more bits of data sent) in each main clock cycle. The number of possibilities must not be so large that the receiver might mishear which one was intended in the presence of noise. Noisy bins may only be required to carry as few as two bits, a choice from only one of four possible patterns, or only one bit per bin in the case of ADSL2+, and really noisy bins are not used at all. If the pattern of noise versus frequencies heard in the bins changes, the DSL modem can alter the bits-per-bin allocations, in a process called "bitswap", where bins that have become more noisy are only required to carry fewer bits and other channels will be chosen to be given a higher burden. The data transfer capacity the DSL modem therefore reports is determined by the total of the bits-per-bin allocations of all the bins combined. Higher signal-to-noise ratios and more bins being in use gives a higher total link capacity, while lower signal-to-noise ratios or fewer bins being used gives a low link capacity.

The total maximum capacity derived from summing the bits-per-bins is reported by DSL modems and is sometimes termed sync rate. This will always be rather misleading as the true maximum link capacity for user data transfer rate will be significantly lower because extra data is transmitted that is termed protocol overhead, a reduced figure of around 84-87% at most for PPPoA connections being a common example. In addition some ISPs will have traffic policies that limit maximum transfer rates further in the networks beyond the exchange, and traffic congestion on the Internet, heavy loading on servers and slowness or inefficiency in customers' computers may all contribute to reductions below the maximum attainable.

The choices the DSL modem make can also be either conservative, where the modem chooses to allocate fewer bits per bin than it possibly could, a choice which makes for a slower connection, or less conservative in which more bits per bin are chosen in which case there is a greater risk case of error should future signal-to-noise ratios deteriorate to the point where the bits-per-bin allocations chosen are too high to cope with the greater noise present. This conservatism involving a choice to using fewer bits per bin as a safeguard against future noise increases is reported as the signal-to-noise ratio margin or SNR margin. The telephone exchange can indicate a suggested SNR margin to the customer's DSL modem when it initially connects, and the modem may make its bits-per-bin allocation plan accordingly. A high SNR margin will mean a reduced maximum throughput but greater reliability and stability of the connection. A low SNR margin will mean high speeds provided the noise level does not increase too much, otherwise the connection will have to be dropped and renegotiated (resynced). ADSL2+ can better accommodate such circumstances, offering a feature termed seamless rate adaptation (SRA), which can accommodate changes in total link capacity with less disruption to communications.

Vendors may support usage of higher frequencies as a proprietary extension to the standard. However, this requires matching vendor-supplied equipment on both ends of the line, and will likely result in crosstalk problems that affect other lines in the same bundle.

There is a direct relationship between the number of channels available and the throughput capacity of the ADSL connection. The exact data capacity per channel depends on the modulation method used.

ADSL initially existed in two flavours (similar to VDSL), namely CAP and DMT. CAP was the de facto standard for ADSL deployments up until 1996, deployed in 90 percent of ADSL installs at the time. However, DMT was chosen for the first ITU-T ADSL standards, G.992.1 and G.992.2 (also called G.dmt and G.lite respectively). Therefore all modern installations of ADSL are based on the DMT modulation scheme.

ADSL standards

Frequency spectrum of a modem on a Short ADSL line.

Frequency spectrum of a modem on a Long ADSL line.


Standard name

Common name

 Downstream rate 

 Upstream rate 

 Approved in 


ANSI T1.413-1998 Issue 2


8 Mbit/s

1.0 Mbit/s


ITU G.992.1


12 Mbit/s

1.3 Mbit/s


ITU G.992.1 Annex A


12 Mbit/s

1.3 Mbit/s


ITU G.992.1 Annex B


12 Mbit/s

1.8 Mbit/s


ITU G.992.2

ADSL Lite (G.Lite)

1.5 Mbit/s

0.5 Mbit/s



ITU G.992.3


12 Mbit/s

1.0 Mbit/s


ITU G.992.3 Annex J


12 Mbit/s

3.5 Mbit/s

ITU G.992.3 Annex L


5 Mbit/s

0.8 Mbit/s

ITU G.992.4

splitterless ADSL2

1.5 Mbit/s

0.5 Mbit/s



ITU G.992.5


24 Mbit/s

1.0 Mbit/s


ITU G.992.5 Annex M


24 Mbit/s

3.5 Mbit/s


Annexes J and M shift the upstream/downstream frequency split up to 276 kHz (from 138 kHz used in the commonly deployed annex A) in order to boost upstream rates. Additionally, the "all-digital-loop" variants of ADSL2 and ADSL2+ (annexes I and J) support an extra 256 kbit/s of upstream if the bandwidth normally used for POTS voice calls is allocated for ADSL usage.

ADSL1 access utilizes the 1.1 MHz band, and ADSL2+ utilizes the 2.2 MHz band.

The downstream and upstream rates displayed are theoretical maxima. Note also that because digital subscriber line access multiplexers and ADSL modems may have been implemented based on differing or incomplete standards some manufacturers may advertise different speeds. For example, Ericsson has several devices that support non-standard upstream speeds of up to 2 Mbit/s in ADSL2 and ADSL2+.

Installation issues

Due to the way it uses the frequency spectrum, ADSL deployment presents some issues. It is necessary to install appropriate frequency filters at the customer's premises, to avoid interference with the voice service, while at the same time taking care to keep a clean signal level for the ADSL connection.

In the early days of DSL, installation required a technician to visit the premises. A splitter or microfilter was installed near the demarcation point, from which a dedicated data line was installed. This way, the DSL signal is separated earlier and is not attenuated inside the customer premises. However, this procedure is costly, and also caused problems with customers complaining about having to wait for the technician to perform the installation. As a result, many DSL vendors started offering a self-install option, in which they ship equipment and instructions to the customer. Instead of separating the DSL signal at the demarcation point, the opposite is done: the DSL signal is filtered at each phone outlet by use of a low-pass filter for voice and a high-pass filter for data, usually enclosed in what is known as a microfilter. This microfilter can be plugged directly into any phone jack, and does not require any rewiring at the customer's premises.

A side effect of the move to the self-install model is that the DSL signal can be degraded, especially if more than 5 voiceband devices are connected to the line. The DSL signal is now present on all telephone wiring in the building, causing attenuation and echo. A way to circumvent this is to go back to the original model, and install one filter upstream from all telephone jacks in the building, except for the jack to which the DSL modem will be connected. Since this requires wiring changes by the customer and may not work on some household telephone wiring, it is rarely done. It is usually much easier to install filters at each telephone jack that is in use.

DSL signals may be degraded by older telephone lines, surge protectors, poorly designed microfilters, radio frequency interference, electrical noise, and by long telephone extension cords. Telephone extension cords are typically made with small-gauge multi-strand copper conductors which do not maintain a noise-reducing pair twist. Such cable is more susceptible to electromagnetic interference and has more attenuation than solid twisted-pair copper wires typically wired to telephone jacks. These effects are especially significant where the customer's phone line is more than 4 km from the DSLAM in the telephone exchange, which causes the signal levels to be lower relative to any local noise and attenuation. This will have the effect of reducing speeds or causing connection failures.

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: ADSL

Broadband Internet access

Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer

ADSL loop extender can be used to expand the reach and rate of ADSL services.

Low-pass filter and ADSL splitter.

Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line

Rate-Adaptive Digital Subscriber Line (RADSL)

Flat rate

Attenuation distortion

ADSL max

List of device bandwidths

Single-pair high-speed digital subscriber line (SHDSL)


^ ANSI T1.413-1998 etwork and Customer Installation Interfaces Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) Metallic Interface. (American National Standards Institute 1998)

^ Data and Computer Communications, William Stallings, ISBN 0132433109, ISBN 978-0132433105

External links

(All about ADSL (advanced tutorials))

ADSL Theory Information about the background & workings of ADSL, and the factors involved in achieving a good sync between your modem and the DSLAM.

(The UNH-IOL DSL Knowledge Base (advanced tutorials))

ADSL, ADSL2 and ADSL2+ Speeds and Reach Compared

ADSL Research Report

ADSL Tutorial

DSL How-To Complete guide from scratch; how to install cabling & service, and configure a Linux-based machine as an advanced/sophisticated router.

Various ADSL Technical Information

Internet access

Network type




Coaxial cable

Twisted pair

Phone line

Power line

Unlicensed terrestrial bands

Licensed terrestrial bands






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